What is landscape?
Landscape refers to an area of land that has a particular quality or appearance.
The physical elements of geophysically defined landforms such as (ice-capped) mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds, and the sea, as well as living elements of land, comprise the landscape.
The character of a landscape contributes to the self-image of the people who inhabit it, as well as a sense of place that distinguishes one region from others.
Common features of earth’s landscape
Some of features of earth’s landscape are
short note on Mountains
“The mountain is both the beginning and the end of all natural scenery.” Mountains are God-given physical features that can be found both on land and in the sea (even on other planets). We cannot always quantify their significance in terms of words.
- Mountains are formed by tectonic forces, erosion, or volcanism, which operate on time scales ranging from millions to billions of years.
- Once mountain building ceases, mountains are gradually levelled by weathering, slumping, and other landscape
- forms of mass wasting, as well as erosion by rivers and glaciers.
- The Andes Mountains are the longest mountain ranges in the world, covering the distance of 6440km long along the Pacific coast.
- Mt. Aconcagua(6960m) Argentina-Chile border is the highest peak in the mountain range.
- Other peaks are Mt.Cotopaxi (5896m) and Mt. Chimborazo (6272m) in Ecuador.
- The Andes are rich in minerals like copper and tin.
- About half of mountain dwellers live in the Andes, Central Asia, and Africa.
- There are five main types of mountains: volcanic, fold, plateau, fault-block and dome.
- Mount Wycheproof is the smallest mountain range in covering the distance of 148 m.
short note on Hills
Hills refers to seeds or plants planted in a group rather than a row. Hills- “A naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain., Example: Britton Hill (Florida, United States) – 345 ft. Cavanal Hill (Oklahoma, United States) – 2,385 ft.
- Cavanal Hill (officially it is known as cavanal Mountain),- is termed as ”World’s Highest Hill” located near Poteau, Oklahoma, covering-1,999 feet”.
- Jing Hill is the smallest hill in the world. It is located in Shouguang county ,East China’s Shandong province. Also It a gathers lots of attention due to its 0.6 meters high, 0.7 meters wide and 1.24 meters long statue. It look like a rock than a hill.
short note on Plains
Plains are the vast stretches of flat land. They are mostly formed by rivers and their tributaries. Plains are usually fertile lands.
- What are the types of plains? There are four types of plains in the world. They are
- Erosional plains
- Depositional plains
- Structural plains and
- Abyssal plains
- What are erosional plains?
Erosional plains are formations on the earth’s surface caused by natural weathering such as glacier activity, wind movement, or water torrents, and are classified according to the type of erosional agent.
Example:Mississippi delta, Lomb-ardi plains (Italy) formed by Po river, Yangtze plain (China), Indus plain (Ganga), USA plain (Sacramento)
2. What are Depositional plain?
Depositional Plains are formed by the deposition of materials transported by various modes of transportation such as rivers, wind, waves, and glaciers.
There are five main types of Depositional plains
- Alluvial plain
- Lava plain.
- Scroll plains.
- Lacustrine plains.
- Flood plain.
3. What are structural plain?
Structural plains are the plains formed by the uplifting or subsidence of a piece of land. These plains have rounded peaks.
Example:Srinagar in India and North West Eurasia.
4. What are Abyssal plain?
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor that can be found at depths ranging from 3,000 to 6,000 metres.
Example: sohm plain is the largest single recognized abyssal plain is the Sohm Plain in the North Atlantic, which covers around 900,000 km² of ocean floor.
short note on Desert
Deserts are the place that get very little or no rainfall. Desert covers one- fifth of land surface of Earth and are found in every continent.very few people live in desert area. Deserts can be hot or cold.
- The best known hot Desert is the Sahara Desert of North Africa.It is also known as the largest Desert in the world.
- Some of the other well – known hot Desert are the Kalahari, the Mojave, the Arabian, and the Thar Desert.
- Cold Deserts are the Atamacama Desert in South America, the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China, the Takla Makan in China, and Antartica.
- Canada’s Carcross Desert is the world’s smallest desert.
short note on River
Rain is the main of river. Melted snow from mountains reaches the river during summer. So rivers overflow.All the rivers flow in their definite route and finally reach the ocean.
- Nile River: The longest river in the world.
- Amazon River: Second longest river the largest river water flow in the world.
- Yangtze River: The longest river in Asia.
- Roe River: The shortest river in the world.
short note on Plateaus
A plateau is a flat, elevated landform with at least one side that rises sharply above the surrounding area. Plateaus are found on all continents and cover one-third of the Earth’s land surface.
The different types of plateaus are:
- Dissected Plateaus
- Tectonic Plateaus
- Volcanic Plateaus
- Deccan Plateaus
- What are Dissected plateaus?
A dissected plateau is a plateau area that has been severely destroyed, leading in sharp relief.
- What are tectonic plateaus?
The Deccan Plateau, crustal shortening (i.e.,thrusting of one block of crust over another, and folding) are the processes that form tectonic plateaus.
- What are volcanic plateaus?
A volcanic plateau is a plateau formed as a result of volcanic activity.
There are two types of volcanic plateaus:
- Lava plateaus and
- Pyroclastic plateaus.
- What are Deccan Plateaus?
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau that extends across western and southern India. It rises to 100 metres in the north and more than 1,000 metres in the south, forming a raised triangle within the Indian coastline’s south-pointing triangle.
Over 300 million people live in the greater area of the Deccan Plateau.
It spans eight Indian states and includes a diverse range of habitats, including significant portions of Telangana, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
short note on Lakes
Lake is an relatively large body of slowly moving or standing water that occupies a sizable in lands reservoir.
- Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake in the world and it’s the world’s oldest and deepest lake.
- Benxi Lake in Liaoning Province by Guinness World Records as “the world’s smallest lake”. The lake was named after Benxi City where it is located.
The different types of lakes are:
- Tectonic lakes
- Volcanic lakes
- Glacial lakes
- Fluvial lakes
- Solution lakes
- Landslide lakes
- Aeolian lakes
- Shoreline lakes
short note on Streams
Streams are the small narrow river. In other words, stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the channel’s bed and banks
The four types of streams are:
- Braided Streams
- Delta streams
- Ephemeral Streams
- Intermittent Streams
What are braided streams?
Braided streams, which are typically found near very high mountains, have multiple channels that continuously branch and join along the entire length of the stream, resulting in numerous longitudinal bars between the channels. It is not the same as alluvial fans because the channels do not form into fan shapes or distributaries. It is also known as anastomosing.
What are Delta streams?
Deltas form when streams enter a body of standing water, usually an ocean. Deltas will not form if the body of water can move the sediment as quickly as it arrives. In one way, deltas are similar to alluvial fans in that there are distributary channels that branch out from a single channel.
What are Ephemeral Streams?
Ephemeral streams flow for a brief period of time, usually after snow melts or a heavy rainstorm; in other words, whenever there is an increase in the amount of watershed on the earth. This is a small stream with a channel.
What are intermittent streams?
Intermittent streams are those that flow during the wet season – usually from winter to spring – but are usually dry during the hot summer months. They flow for a portion of the year or the majority of the year, but they do not always carry water during the dry season.