# Infectious Diseases – Disease, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. There are numerous organisms that live in and on our bodies.

#### What is a disease?

A disease is a condition in which certain functions of the body get disturbed and makes the person feel sick.

Certain disease are caused by microrganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Microrganism  are extreamly  small living things that can been seen only with the microscope. Disease causing microrganisms are called germs or pathogens.

Not all microrganisms cause disease.Some are useful to us.Cheese,bread and curd are made with the help of microrganisms.Many kinds of microrganisms live in the human body.Some of these organisms help in digesting food.

#### Where do germs live?

Germs live everywhere.They are present in air,in unclean water,and also in the soil.They also live inside the body of animals and plants.

#### Does every disease has definite symptoms?

Yes,Every disease causing germs affects the body in a certain way.For Example:the virus that causes common cold affects the throath and lungs of the person.That is why a person suffering from common cold coughs and has a running nose.These are the symptoms of common cold.

Similarly,if a person vomits and passes watery stoolseveral times in a day,the person could be suffering from cholera.By studing the sympytoms,the doctors are able to identify the disease.

Communicable or infectious disease:

Some disease can be passed on from a sick person to another person. Such disease are called infectious disease or communicable disease. Cholera, tuberculosis[TB], typhoid, and common cold etc are infectious disease. At this time a person suffering from an infectious disease is shifted to a for proper care.

The infectious disease are as follows:

## cholera (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

Cholera is a severe diarrheal illness caused by a Vibrio cholerae bacterial infection of the intestine. People can become ill if they consume cholera-contaminated food or water. The infection is frequently mild or without symptoms, but it can occasionally be severe and life-threatening.

It is also caused by contaminated food and water, as well as contact with an infected individual.

SYMPTOMS//

vomiting,thirst,leg cramps,restlessness or irritability And profuse watery diarrhoea, also known as “rice-water stools”etc.

TREATMENT//

The primary treatment for cholera patients is rehydration therapy, which refers to the prompt replenishment of lost fluids and salts. Antibiotic treatment reduces fluid requirements and illness duration in severe cases of cholera.

PREVENTION//

*Avoid food and water from unclean source.

*Always drink and use safe water to brush your teeth, wash and prepare food, and clean up in the kitchen and areas where the family bathes and washes clothes.

*Wash your hands frequently with soap and warm water.

*Use latrines or bury your poop; do not poop in bodies of water.

*Cook food thoroughly (especially seafood), keep it covered, and consume it hot.

## Typhoid (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi, a virulent bacteria. Although related, Salmonella typhi and the bacteria that causes salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection, are not the same.contact with an infested person, contaminated food and water.

SYMPTOMS//

*Fever which starts low and slowly increases daily, even reaching as high as 104.9

*Muscle aches.

*Weakness and fatigue.

*Sweating.

*Dry cough.

*Loss of appetite and weight loss.

TREATMENT//

*Typhoid fever requires a prompt treatment along with antibiotics.

*If the typhoid fever is diagnosed early, the infection is likely to be quite mild and can be usually treated at the home itself with a 7 to 14-day course of the antibiotic tablets.

PREVENTION//

*Receiving a typhoid fever vaccination.

*Avoiding food that is raw or undercooked.

*Drinking only bottled water or water that has been boiled.

*Thoroughly washing your hands each time before eating.

*Avoiding raw fruits and vegetables that cannot be peeled.

## Malaria (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which infects red blood cells and liver cells. The parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito infected with the parasites. caused by mosquito.

SYMPYOMS//

*shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe.

*high fever.

*profuse sweating.

*vomiting.

*abdominal pain.

*Body ache.

*Chills.etc

TREATMENT//

Malaria, a treatable disease, kills over 400 000 people each year. Both early diagnosis and treatment of malaria are critical for rapid and effective case management of the disease. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is the most effective available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum malaria (ACT).

PREVENTION//

*Wear full sleeve protective clothing.

*Spray insect repellants on your exposed skin.

*Use a mosquito net over the bed if your bedroom isn’t air-conditioned or screened.

*When you go out, in addition to spraying insect repellants on your exposed skin, you can also spray on your clothing.

*Take preventive medicine.

*Do not let water collect in your surroundings.

## Influeanza (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

The flu is caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. These viruses spread when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk, sending droplets with the virus into the air and potentially into the mouths or noses of people who are nearby.contaminated air,contact with infected person.

SYMPTOMS//

*Fever.

*Aching muscles.

*Chills and sweats.

*Dry, persistent cough.

*Shortness of breath.

*Tiredness and weakness.

*Eye pain.

*Caughing.

*Running Nose.

PREVENTION//

*Avoid close contact. Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

*Stay home when you are sick. If possible, stay home from work, school, and errands when you are sick. …

*Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.

*Practice other good health habits.

## Corona Virus (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

The virus that causes COVID-19 is a member of the Coronaviridae family of viruses. Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses. As a complication, some people who become ill with COVID-19 may develop a bacterial infection. In this case, a doctor may advise you to take antibiotics.

There is currently no approved treatment for COVID-19. If you have symptoms, contact your doctor or the COVID-19 hotline for help.

SYMPTOMS//

Most common symptoms:

fever.

dry cough.

tiredness.

Less common symptoms:

aches and pains.

sore throat.

diarrhoea.

loss of taste or smell.

Serious symptoms:

difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.

chest pain or pressure.

loss of speech or movement.

On average it takes 5–6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, however it can take up to 14 days.

TREATMENT//

Isolate yourself in a well ventilated room.

Monitor temperature daily.

*Use a triple layer medical mask, and discard it after 8 hours or sooner if it becomes wet or visibly soiled. If a caregiver enters the room, both the caregiver and the patient should consider using a N 95 mask.

*Personal items should not be shared with other members of the household.

PREVENTION//

*Keep at least a 1-metre distance between yourself and others to reduce your risk of infection when they cough, sneeze, or speak, and keep an even greater distance between yourself and others indoors.

*Make wearing a mask a normal part of being in public. Masks must be used, stored, and cleaned or disposed of properly in order to be as effective as possible.

* Avoid touching surfaces, especially in public places or health care facilities, in case they have been touched by people infected with COVID-19. Surfaces should be cleaned on a regular basis with standard disinfectants.

.* Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub.

## Black Fungus (Infectious diseases)

CAUSES//

In general, some fungi do not cause infections in humans, but they can cause illness in people with weakened immune systems, which is known as opportunistic infections.

SYMPTOMS//

Mucormycosis begins as a skin infection in the air pockets behind our brows, noses, cheekbones, and between our eyes and teeth. It then spreads to the eyes, lungs, and even the brain. It causes nose blackening or discoloration, blurred or double vision, chest pain, breathing difficulties, and blood coughing.

TREATMENT//

After infecting a person, the fungus spreads through the nose, attacks the eyes, and eventually reaches the brain, where it becomes potentially lethal. To treat, this necessitates multidisciplinary expertise.

Mucormycosis affects a variety of body parts in the majority of cases, especially if it goes undetected for an extended period of time. As a result, a multidisciplinary team of microbiologists, internal medicine specialists, intensivist neurologists, ENT specialists, ophthalmologists, dentists, surgeons, and others is required.

All infected tissues must be surgically removed as part of life-saving procedures. Some patients lose an eye or eyes, and in some cases, the upper jaw.

Patients may require an intravenous antifungal procedure that lasts four to six weeks.

ALWAYS KEEP YOUR SURRONDINGS CLEAN SO THAT NO PERSON    SHOULD GET INFECTED AND THE DISEASES CAN EASILY STOP SREADING.     “CLEAN PERSON IS A HEALTHY PERSON”